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A Type III-B Cmr effector complex catalyzes the synthesis of cyclic oligoadenylate second messengers by cooperative substrate binding

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Recently, Type III-A CRISPR-Cas systems were found to catalyze the synthesis of cyclic oligoadenylates (cOAs), a second messenger that specifically activates Csm6, a Cas accessory RNase and confers antiviral defense in bacteria. To test if III-B CRISPR-Cas systems could mediate a similar CRISPR signaling pathway, the Sulfolobus islandicus Cmr-α ribonucleoprotein complex (Cmr-α-RNP) was purified from the native host and tested for cOA synthesis. We found that the system showed a robust production of cyclic tetra-adenylate (c-A4), and that c-A4 functions as a second messenger to activate the III-B-associated RNase Csx1 by binding to its CRISPR-associated Rossmann Fold domain. Investigation of the kinetics of cOA synthesis revealed that Cmr-α-RNP displayed positively cooperative binding to the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) substrate. Furthermore, mutagenesis of conserved domains in Cmr2α confirmed that, while Palm 2 hosts the active site of cOA synthesis, Palm 1 domain serves as the primary site in the enzyme-substrate interaction. Together, our data suggest that the two Palm domains cooperatively interact with ATP molecules to achieve a robust cOA synthesis by the III-B CRISPR-Cas system.

TidsskriftNucleic Acids Research
Udgave nummer19
Sider (fra-til)10319-10330
Antal sider12
StatusUdgivet - 2018

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