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Arabidopsis chromatin-associated HMGA and HMGB use different nuclear targeting signals and display highly dynamic localization within the nucleus

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In plants, the chromatin-associated high mobility group (HMG) proteins occur in twosubfamilies termedHMGAandHMGB.The HMGAproteins are characterized by the presence of four AT-hookDNAbinding motifs, and theHMGBproteins contain anHMG boxDNAbinding domain. As architectural factors, theHMGproteins appear to be involved in the regulation of transcription and other DNA-dependent processes. We have examined the subcellular localization of Arabidopsis thaliana HMGA, HMGB1, and HMGB5, revealing that they localize to the cell nucleus. They display a speckled distribution pattern throughout the chromatin of interphase nuclei, whereas none of the proteins associate with condensed mitotic chromosomes. HMGA is targeted to the nucleus by a monopartite nuclear localization signal, while efficient nuclear accumulation of HMGB1/5 requires large portions of the basic N-terminal part of the proteins. The acidic C-terminal domain interferes with nucleolar targeting of HMGB1. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments revealed that HMGA and HMGB proteins are extremely dynamic in the nucleus, indicating that they bind chromatin only transiently before moving on to the next site, thereby continuously scanning the genome for targets. By contrast, the majority of histone H2B is basically immobile within the nucleus, while linkerhistone H1.2 is relatively mobile.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftPlant Cell
Vol/bind18
Udgave nummer11
Sider (fra-til)2904-2918
Antal sider15
ISSN1040-4651
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2006

ID: 8061606