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Assessment of left ventricular size and function during cardiac surgery: An intraoperative evaluation of six two-dimensional echocardiographic methods with real time three-dimensional echocardiography as a reference

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Transesophageal echocardiography is recommended to monitor left ventricular (LV) size and function in various operations. Generally, two-dimensional (2D) methods are applied intraoperatively. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy and feasibility of 6 commonly used 2D methods to assess LV function during surgery. LV function in 120 consecutive patients was evaluated. Real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiograpy (3DTEE) served as reference. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes and ejection fraction (EF) were analyzed with Simpson's method of discs (monoplane [MP] and biplane [BP]), eyeball method, Teichholz' method, and speckle tracking (ST) methods. Furthermore, fractional area change (FAC) and peak systolic pressure rise (dP/dt) were determined. Each 2D method was evaluated regarding correlation and agreement with 3DE, intra- and interobserver variability and the time required for evaluation. Simpson BP showed the strongest correlation and best agreement with 3DE for EF (limits of agreement 3.7 ± 11.6%) and volumes. Simpson MP showed similar agreement with 3DE compared to ST (2.8 ± 14.5% vs. 2.0 ± 15.3% and 3.8 ± 14.4% vs. 1.9 ± 15.6%, respectively). Both the eyeball method and Teichholz' method showed wide limits of agreement (-1.5 ± 18.2% and 5.2 ± 22.1%, respectively). dP/dt did not correlate with 3DE. FAC and ST FAC showed similar agreement. Application of 3DE (429 ± 108 seconds) took the longest time, and the eyeball method took the shortest time (8 ± 5 seconds) for analysis. Simpson BP is the most accurate intraoperative 2D method to evaluate LV function, followed by long-axis MP evaluations. Short-axis views were less accurate but may be suited for monitoring. We do not recommend using dP/dt.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftEchocardiography: A Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound and Allied Techniques
Vol/bind30
Udgave nummer6
Sider (fra-til)672-681
Antal sider10
ISSN0742-2822
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 1 jul. 2013
Eksternt udgivetJa

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