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Co-expression of TIMP-1 and its cell surface binding partner CD63 in glioblastomas

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Background: We have previously identified tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) as a prognostic marker in glioblastomas. TIMP-1 has been associated with chemotherapy resistance, and CD63, a known TIMP-1-binding protein, has been suggested to be responsible for this effect. The aim of this study was to assess CD63 expression in astrocytomas focusing on the prognostic potential of CD63 alone and in combination with TIMP-1. Methods: CD63 expression was investigated immunohistochemically in a cohort of 111 astrocytomas and correlated to tumor grade and overall survival by semi-quantitative scoring. CD63 expression in tumor-associated microglia/macrophages was examined by double-immunofluorescence with ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1). The association between CD63 and TIMP-1 was investigated using previously obtained TIMP-1 data from our astrocytoma cohort. Cellular co-expression of TIMP-1 and CD63 as well as TIMP-1 and the tumor stem cell-related markers CD133 and Sox2 was investigated with immunofluorescence. TIMP-1 and CD63 protein interaction was detected by an oligonucleotide-based proximity ligation assay and verified using co-immunoprecipitation. Results: The expression of CD63 was widely distributed in astrocytomas with a significantly increased level in glioblastomas. CD63 levels did not significantly correlate with patient survival at a protein level, and CD63 did not augment the prognostic significance of TIMP-1. Up to 38% of the CD63+ cells expressed Iba1; however, Iba1 did not appear to impact the prognostic value of CD63. A significant correlation was found between TIMP-1 and CD63, and the TIMP-1 and CD63 proteins were co-expressed at the cellular level and located in close molecular proximity, suggesting that TIMP-1 and CD63 could be co-players in glioblastomas. Some TIMP-1+ cells expressed CD133 and Sox2. Conclusion: The present study suggests that CD63 is highly expressed in glioblastomas and that TIMP-1 and CD63 interact. CD63 does not add to the prognostic value of TIMP-1. Co-expression of TIMP-1 and stem cell markers as well as the wide expression of CD63 might suggest a role for TIMP-1 and CD63 in glioblastoma stemness.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer270
TidsskriftBMC Cancer
Vol/bind18
Antal sider16
ISSN1471-2407
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 9 mar. 2018

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