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Different domains of the glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors provide the critical determinants of ligand selectivity

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(1) Glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are homologous peptide hormones with important functions in glucose metabolism. The receptors for glucagon and GLP-1 are homologous family B G-protein coupled receptors. The GLP-1 receptor amino-terminal extracellular domain is a major determinant of glucagon/GLP-1 selectivity of the GLP-1 receptor. However, the divergent residues in glucagon and GLP-1 that determine specificity for the GLP-1 receptor amino-terminal extracellular domain are not known. Less is known about how the glucagon receptor distinguishes between glucagon and GLP-1. (2) We analysed chimeric glucagon/GLP-1 peptides for their ability to bind and activate the glucagon receptor, the GLP-1 receptor and chimeric glucagon/GLP-1 receptors. The chimeric peptide GLP-1(7-20)/glucagon(15-29) was unable to bind and activate the glucagon receptor. Substituting the glucagon receptor core domain with the GLP-1 receptor core domain (chimera A) completely rescued the affinity and potency of GLP-1(7-20)/glucagon(15-29) without compromising the affinity and potency of glucagon. Substituting transmembrane segment 1 (TM1), TM6, TM7, the third extracellular loop and the intracellular carboxy-terminus of chimera A with the corresponding glucagon receptor segments re-established the ability to distinguish GLP-1(7-20)/glucagon(15-29) from glucagon. Corroborant results were obtained with the opposite chimeric peptide glucagon(1-14)/GLP-1(21-37). (3) The results suggest that the glucagon and GLP-1 receptor amino-terminal extracellular domains determine specificity for the divergent residues in the glucagon and GLP-1 carboxy-terminals respectively. The GLP-1 receptor core domain is not a critical determinant of glucagon/GLP-1 selectivity. Conversely, the glucagon receptor core domain contains two or more sub-segments which strongly determine specificity for divergent residues in the glucagon amino-terminus.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftBritish Journal of Pharmacology
Vol/bind138
Udgave nummer5
Sider (fra-til)787-94
ISSN0007-1188
DOI
StatusUdgivet - mar. 2003

ID: 45596682