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Electron-mediating Cu(A) centers in proteins: a comparative high field (1)H ENDOR study

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningfagfællebedømt

  • Boris Epel
  • Claire S Slutter
  • Frank Neese
  • Peter M H Kroneck
  • Walter G Zumft
  • Israel Pecht
  • Ole Farver
  • Yi Lu
  • Daniella Goldfarb

High field (W-band, 95 GHz) pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) measurements were carried out on a number of proteins that contain the mixed-valence, binuclear electron-mediating Cu(A) center. These include nitrous oxide reductase (N(2)OR), the recombinant water-soluble fragment of subunit II of Thermus thermophilus cytochrome c oxidase (COX) ba(3) (M160T9), its M160QT0 mutant, where the weak axial methionine ligand has been replaced by a glutamine, and the engineered "purple" azurin (purpAz). The three-dimensional (3-D) structures of these proteins, apart from the mutant, are known. The EPR spectra of all samples showed the presence of a mononuclear Cu(II) impurity with EPR characteristics of a type II copper. At W-band, the g( perpendicular) features of this center and of Cu(A) are well resolved, thus allowing us to obtain a clean Cu(A) ENDOR spectrum. The latter consists of two types of ENDOR signals. The first includes the signals of the four strongly coupled cysteine beta-protons, with isotropic hyperfine couplings, A(iso), in the 7-15 MHz range. The second group consists of weakly coupled protons with a primarily anisotropic character with A(zz) < 3 MHz. Orientation selective ENDOR spectra were collected for N(2)OR, M160QT0, and purpAz, and simulations of the cysteine beta-protons signals provided their isotropic and anisotropic hyperfine interactions. A linear correlation with a negative slope was found between the maximum A(iso) value of the beta-protons and the copper hyperfine interaction. Comparison of the best-fit anisotropic hyperfine parameters with those calculated from dipolar interactions extracted from the available 3-D structures sets limit to the sulfur spin densities. Similarly, the small coupling spectral region was simulated on the basis of the 3-D structures and compared with the experimental spectra. It was found that the width of the powder patterns of the weakly coupled protons recorded at g(perpendicular) is mainly determined by the histidine H(epsilon)(1) protons. Furthermore, the splitting in the outer wings of these powder patterns indicates differences in the positions of the imidazole rings relative to the Cu(2)S(2) core. Comparison of the spectral features of the weakly coupled protons of M160QT0 with those of the other investigated proteins shows that they are very similar to those of purpAz, where the Cu(A) center is the most symmetric, but the copper spin density and the H(epsilon)(1)-Cu distances are somewhat smaller. All proteins show the presence of a proton with a significantly negative A(iso) value which is assigned to an amide proton of one of the cysteines. The simulations of both strongly and weakly coupled protons, along with the known copper hyperfine couplings, were used to estimate and compare the spin density distribution in the various Cu(A) centers. The largest sulfur spin density was found in M160T9, and the lowest was found in purpAz. In addition, using the relation between the A(iso) values of the four cysteine beta-protons and the H-C-S-S dihedral angles, the relative contribution of the hyperconjugation mechanism to A(iso) was determined. The largest contribution was found for M160T9, and the lowest was found for purpAz. Possible correlations between the spin density distribution, structural features, and electron-transfer functionality are finally suggested.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftJournal of the American Chemical Society
Vol/bind124
Udgave nummer27
Sider (fra-til)8152-62
Antal sider11
ISSN0002-7863
StatusUdgivet - 10 jul. 2002

ID: 113625318