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Incretin secretion: direct mechanisms

Publikation: Bidrag til bog/antologi/rapportEncyclopædiartikelFormidling

The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are secreted from gastro-intestinal K- and L-cells, respectively, and play an important role in post-prandial blood glucose regulation. They do this by direct stimulation of the pancreatic β-cell, accounting for some 25-70% of postprandial insulin secretion in healthy subjects. In patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, however, this effect is greatly reduced or lost due to a combination of severely impaired or eliminated insulinotrophic effect of GIP and reduced meal stimulated GLP-1 secretion. This suggests that the therapeutic potential of GIP for the treatment for T2D is limited, whereas GLP-1 based treatments have been on the market since 2005. Research is now pursuing novel approaches to utilize the effects of GLP-1 for T2D treatment. A combinatorial approach by which the activity of the major enzyme responsible for incretin degradation (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) is inhibited (drugs are already on the market) while the secretion of endogenous GLP-1 secretion is stimulated at the same time may prove particularly rewarding. In this section we review current knowledge on the mechanisms for direct activation of GIP and GLP-1 secretion.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TitelDiapedia : The living textbook of diabetes
Antal sider3
ForlagEuropean Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD)
Publikationsdato12 jun. 2014
Sider1-3
KapitelMetabolism, Incretins, Incretin physiology and its history, Incretin secretion: direct mechanisms
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 12 jun. 2014

ID: 113811545