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Metabolic Syndrome in Male Survivors of Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Impact of Total Body Irradiation, Low-Grade Inflammation, and Hypogonadism

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningfagfællebedømt

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a growing concern in survivors of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of MetS in male long-term survivors of pediatric HSCT and to investigate predisposing factors, including low-grade inflammation, altered fat distribution, and low testosterone levels. We included 98 survivors age 19 to 47 years at a median follow-up of 18 years (range, 8 to 35 years) after pediatric HSCT. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The prevalence and clinical manifestations of MetS were compared between our cohort and a control group of males from the background population (n = 4767). Fat distribution was assessed by android/gynoid ratio from a whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Systemic inflammation was evaluated by IL-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Serum testosterone levels were measured in morning samples. The prevalence of MetS was 30%, corresponding to the prevalence in the 50- to 80-year-old males from the background population. In individuals with MetS, hyperglycemia was more frequent in the HSCT survivors compared with age-matched controls with MetS (76% versus 20%; P < .001), whereas hypertension was more dominant in the control group with MetS (69% versus 93%; P = .01). In addition, normal or low body mass index was more commonly observed among HSCT survivors with MetS compared with age-matched controls with MetS (41% versus 11%; P = .002). MetS was more often associated with total body irradiation (TBI) compared with chemotherapy regimens (odds ratio [OR], 4.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 24.4; P = .02), lower testosterone levels (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.3 to 23.6; P = .02), higher IL-6 levels (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.8; P = .004), and higher hsCRP levels (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.6; P < .001) (estimates per 2-fold increase). In addition, an increased android/gynoid (AG) fat ratio was strongly associated with MetS (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.5 to 2.9; P < .001), even though only 7% of patients met the criteria for increased abdominal circumference. Our results indicate an increased risk of MetS in early adulthood after pediatric HSCT. The clinical manifestations differed from those seen in age-matched controls with MetS, indicating different pathophysiology driven by hyperglycemia, altered fat distribution (despite no clinical abdominal obesity), and low-grade inflammation. Risk factors included TBI-based conditioning and low testosterone levels. These results underline the importance of continuous clinical assessment of the cardiometabolic risk profile and stress the presence of important dissimilarities in the pathophysiology of MetS in HSCT survivors compared with the background population.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftTransplantation and Cellular Therapy
ISSN2666-6367
DOI
StatusAccepteret/In press - 2021

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
Financial disclosure: This study was supported by the Danish Childhood Cancer Foundation (2015-15 and 2016-0261), the Rigshospitalet Research Foundation, the Danish Cancer Society (R165-A10527), the Danish Cancer Research Foundation, the Dagmar Marshall Foundation, the Hartmann Brothers Foundation (A30640), the Finnish Cancer Society, the Finnish Foundation of Pediatric Research, the Helsinki University Research Foundation, the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation (PR2017-0037 and TJ2015-0046), and the Swedish Research Council (2016-01296). K.M.P. and B.G.N. were supported by the Danish Karen Elise Jensen Foundation.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy

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