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Recurrent bilateral renal calculi in a tetraplegic patient

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An 18-year-old male developed C-5 complete tetraplegia following a motor-cycle accident in May 1975. The neuropathic bladder was managed by an indwelling urethral catheter. He developed recurrent episodes of urinary infection with Proteus species. In September 1975, an X-ray of the abdomen revealed small calculi in both the kidneys. In July 1976, he underwent transurethral resection of the bladder neck and division of the external urethral sphincter; subsequently, he was put on a penile sheath drainage. He continued to suffer from repeated episodes of urinary tract infection with Proteus, Providencia, and Pseudomonas species, and he was treated with antibiotics. In 1980, intravenous urography (IVU) showed two large stones in the left kidney with marked caliectasis. The IVU performed in 1984 showed an increase in the size of the calculi in the left kidney which was grossly hydronephrotic. There were clusters of small calculi in the right kidney. The left renal calculi were treated by percutaneous lithotripsy in two sessions. In 1988, an X-ray of the abdomen revealed staghorn calculus in the right kidney and recurrence of stones in the left kidney. The staghorn calculus in the right kidney was treated by percutaneous nephrostolithotomy in two sessions. In 1991, he was admitted with acute urinary infection. IVU showed a stone in the pelviureteric junction with no excretion of contrast in the left kidney. Percutaneous nephrostomy drainage was established followed by left percutaneous nephrostolithotomy. In 1992, he was found to retain large amount of urine in the bladder; subsequently, his mother was taught to perform regular intermittent catheterisations. In 1995, he was admitted with acute urine infection. Abdominal X-ray revealed recurrence of large stones in both kidneys. With multiple sessions of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL), about 80% clearance was achieved on the left side. Right staghorn renal stone awaits treatment. This case shows that recurrent urinary infection in spinal cord injury patients is a predisposing factor for renal lithiasis. These patients require annual urological evaluation. Urinary tract calculi, if detected, should be dealt with promptly to prevent renal damage due to urinary obstruction and urosepsis. Renal calculi can be treated effectively and safely by ESWL in spinal cord injury patients, thus avoiding the need for an invasive procedure. It is essential to achieve low-pressure, adequate emptying of the urinary bladder in patients with spinal cord injury in order to prevent recurrent urinary infection and its sequelae. Social issues involved in the care of a tetraplegic patient play a vital role in the implementation of ideal medical treatment and need to be addressed promptly to avoid any compromise in the quality of medical care.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftSpinal Cord
Vol/bind36
Udgave nummer7
Sider (fra-til)454-62
Antal sider9
ISSN1362-4393
StatusUdgivet - jul. 1998

ID: 48426900