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Subsoil organo-mineral associations under contrasting climate conditions

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningfagfællebedømt

  • Thiago M. Inagaki
  • Angela R. Possinger
  • Katherine E. Grant
  • Steffen A. Schweizer
  • Müller, Carsten Werner
  • Louis A. Derry
  • Johannes Lehmann
  • Ingrid Kögel-Knabner

Climate differences can induce profound changes in organo-mineral associations in soils. However, the magnitude of these modifications, whether as a direct effect of climate conditions or an indirect effect through changes in soil mineralogy, are still not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to improve understanding of how climate and resultant changes in soil mineralogy affect subsoil (i.e., 0.4–0.9 m) organo-mineral interactions at the macro- and microscale. A set of subsoil samples were collected throughout an elevation gradient (approximately 1800–2400 mm precipitation year−1 and 15–24 °C) on Kohala Mountain, Hawaii. We carried out a combined approach of bulk soil analyses with mineral extractions and spectroscopic and spectromicroscopic analyses. Significant positive correlations (p < 0.05) between soil organic carbon (SOC) with extracted Fe and Al (dithionite citrate bicarbonate – DCB and ammonium oxalate – OX) at the bulk soil scale supported prior research showing concurrent decline of subsoil Fe, Al and SOC above a precipitation level of ∼2000 to ∼2200 mm year−1. However, divergence in microscale organo-mineral associations identified using NanoSIMS allowed us to discern the relative roles of Fe and Al in promoting organo-mineral associations. At the lower precipitation range (∼1800 mm year−1), the clay fraction < 2 µm showed higher amounts of organic matter (OM) co-localized with Fe & Al compared with the higher precipitation level (∼2300 mm year−1), where OM was mostly unassociated or only associated with Al. While Fe contributed to approximately 40% of the microscale organo-mineral associations in the lower precipitation site (quantified by co-localizations with OM segments), this contribution at the higher rainfall regime was only 5%. In contrast, the contribution of Al was approximately the same in both rainfall levels (approximately 30%). Therefore, associations with Al may be more important than Fe for OM stabilization under reducing climate conditions. The normalized CN:C ratio based on individual pixels was found to be higher when co-localized with Al, Fe, or both, especially under the high precipitation regime. This fact points towards the importance of Fe and Al to stabilize more N-rich OM, especially at high rainfall levels. In addition, subsoil from higher rainfall conditions exhibited more reduced forms of Fe (assessed by Fe K-edge XANES) and lower proportions of carboxyl-C (5% lower in the relative abundance) as well as higher alkyl/O-alkyl ratios determined by CP-MAS 13C NMR. Such differences in composition may directly influence the organo-mineral associations at both locations, as differences in Fe reduction and the presence of carboxyl-C groups are recognized to play a role in OM stabilization. We conclude that spatial relationships between Fe and Al with SOC at the microscale show a shift towards Al-dominated SOC associations at higher precipitation that could not be ascertained from bulk measurements alone. Therefore, they are of fundamental importance to understand the impact of climate change on SOC stabilization.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
Vol/bind270
Sider (fra-til)244-263
Antal sider20
ISSN0016-7037
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2020
Eksternt udgivetJa

ID: 238948062