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The rate of base excision repair of uracil is controlled by the initiating glycosylase

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Uracil in DNA is repaired by base excision repair (BER) initiated by a DNA glycosylase, followed by strand incision, trimming of ends, gap filling and ligation. Uracil in DNA comes in two distinct forms; U:A pairs, typically resulting from replication errors, and mutagenic U:G mismatches, arising from cytosine deamination. To identify proteins critical to the rate of repair of these lesions, we quantified overall repair of U:A pairs, U:G mismatches and repair intermediates (abasic sites and nicked abasic sites) in vitro. For this purpose we used circular DNA substrates and nuclear extracts of eight human cell lines with wide variation in the content of BER proteins. We identified the initiating uracil-DNA glycosylase UNG2 as the major overall rate-limiting factor. UNG2 is apparently the sole glycosylase initiating BER of U:A pairs and generally initiated repair of almost 90% of the U:G mismatches. Surprisingly, TDG contributed at least as much as single-strand selective monofunctional uracil-DNA glycosylase 1 (SMUG1) to BER of U:G mismatches. Furthermore, in a cell line that expressed unusually high amounts of TDG, this glycosylase contributed to initiation of as much as approximately 30% of U:G repair. Repair of U:G mismatches was generally faster than that of U:A pairs, which agrees with the known substrate preference of UNG-type glycosylases. Unexpectedly, repair of abasic sites opposite G was also generally faster than when opposite A, and this could not be explained by the properties of the purified APE1 protein. It may rather reflect differences in substrate recognition or repair by different complex(es). Lig III is apparently a minor rate-regulator for U:G repair. APE1, Pol beta, Pol delta, PCNA, XRCC1 and Lig I did not seem to be rate-limiting for overall repair of any of the substrates. These results identify damaged base removal as the major rate-limiting step in BER of uracil in human cells.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftDNA Repair
Vol/bind7
Udgave nummer11
Sider (fra-til)1869-81
Antal sider13
ISSN1568-7864
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 1 nov. 2008
Eksternt udgivetJa

ID: 213362297