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The role of somatostatin in GLP-1-induced inhibition of glucagon secretion in mice

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AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Their main mechanism of action is enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion (from increased beta cell glucose sensitivity) and inhibition of glucagon secretion. The latter has been demonstrated to account for about half of their blood glucose-lowering activity. Whereas the effect of GLP-1 on insulin secretion is clearly dependent on ambient glucose concentrations and has been described in detail, the mechanism responsible for the inhibitory effect of GLP-1 on glucagon secretion is heavily debated. Glucagon inhibition is also said to be glucose-dependent, although it is unclear what is meant by this. We hypothesise here that GLP-1 does not inhibit glucagon secretion during hypoglycaemia because the inhibition depends on somatostatin secretion, which in turn is dependent on glucose levels.

METHODS: We used the perfused mouse pancreas model to investigate this hypothesis.

RESULTS: We found that, in this model, GLP-1 was able to significantly inhibit glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells at all glucose levels tested: 6.0, 1.5 and 0.5 mmol/l (-27.0%, -37.1%, and -23.6%, respectively), and the decrease in glucagon secretion was invariably accompanied by an increase in somatostatin secretion (+286.8%, +158.7%, and +118.8%, respectively). Specific blockade of somatostatin receptor 2 increased glucagon secretion (+118.8% at 1.5 mmol/l glucose and +162.9% at 6.0 mmol/l glucose) and completely eliminated the inhibitory effect of GLP-1.

CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We have shown here that the glucagon-lowering effect of GLP-1 is entirely mediated through the paracrine actions of somatostatin in the perfused mouse pancreas. However, in this model, the inhibitory effect of GLP-1 was preserved at hypoglycaemic levels, leaving unanswered the question of how this is avoided in vivo in individuals treated with GLP-1 receptor agonists.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftDiabetologia
Vol/bind60
Udgave nummer9
Sider (fra-til)1731-1739
Antal sider9
ISSN0012-186X
DOI
StatusUdgivet - sep. 2017

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