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Toxicokinetics of new psychoactive substances: plasma protein binding, metabolic stability, and human phase I metabolism of the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 studied using in vitro tools and LC-HR-MS/MS

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  • Mardal, Marie
  • Emma Gracia-Lor
  • Svenja Leibnitz
  • Sara Castiglioni
  • Markus R Meyer

The new psychoactive substance WIN 55,212-2 ((R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo-[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-napthalenylmethanone) is a potent synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist. The metabolism of WIN 55,212-2 in man has never been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the human in vitro metabolites of WIN 55,212-2 using pooled human liver microsomes and liquid chromatography-high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS) to provide targets for toxicological, doping, and environmental screening procedures. Moreover, a metabolic stability study in pooled human liver microsomes (pHLM) was carried out. In total, 19 metabolites were identified and the following partly overlapping metabolic steps were deduced: degradation of the morpholine ring via hydroxylation, N- and O-dealkylation, and oxidative deamination, hydroxylations on either the naphthalene or morpholine ring or the alkyl spacer with subsequent oxidation, epoxide formation with subsequent hydrolysis, or combinations. In conclusion, WIN 55,212-2 was extensively metabolized in human liver microsomes incubations and the calculated hepatic clearance was comparably high, indicating a fast and nearly complete metabolism in vivo. This is in line with previous findings on other synthetic cannabinoids. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftDrug Testing and Analysis
Vol/bind8
Udgave nummer10
Sider (fra-til)1039-1048
Antal sider10
ISSN1942-7603
DOI
StatusUdgivet - okt. 2016
Eksternt udgivetJa

ID: 167919448