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Vitamin D deficiency in Europe: pandemic?

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningfagfællebedømt

  • Kevin D. Cashman
  • Kirsten G Dowling
  • Zuzana Škrabáková
  • Marcela Gonzalez-Gross
  • Jara Valtueña
  • Stefaan De Henauw
  • Luis A. Moreno
  • Rolf Jorde
  • Guri Grimnes
  • George Moschonis
  • Christina Mavrogianni
  • Yannis Manios
  • Michael Thamm
  • Gert BM Mensink
  • Martina Rabenberg
  • Markus A Busch
  • Lorna Cox
  • Sarah Meadows
  • Gail Goldberg
  • Ann Prentice
  • Jacqueline M Dekker
  • Giel Nijpels
  • Stefan Pilz
  • Karin M A Swart
  • Natasja M van Schoor
  • Paul Lips
  • Gudny Eiriksdottir
  • Vilmundur Gudnason
  • Mary Frances Cotch
  • Seppo Koskinen
  • Christel Lamberg-Allardt
  • Ramon A Durazo-Arvizu
  • Christopher T Sempos
  • Mairead Kiely

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been described as being pandemic, but serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] distribution data for the European Union are of very variable quality. The NIH-led international Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) has developed protocols for standardizing existing 25(OH)D values from national health/nutrition surveys.

OBJECTIVE: This study applied VDSP protocols to serum 25(OH)D data from representative childhood/teenage and adult/older adult European populations, representing a sizable geographical footprint, to better quantify the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Europe.

DESIGN: The VDSP protocols were applied in 14 population studies [reanalysis of subsets of serum 25(OH)D in 11 studies and complete analysis of all samples from 3 studies that had not previously measured it] by using certified liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on biobanked sera. These data were combined with standardized serum 25(OH)D data from 4 previously standardized studies (for a total n = 55,844). Prevalence estimates of vitamin D deficiency [using various serum 25(OH)D thresholds] were generated on the basis of standardized 25(OH)D data.

RESULTS: An overall pooled estimate, irrespective of age group, ethnic mix, and latitude of study populations, showed that 13.0% of the 55,844 European individuals had serum 25(OH)D concentrations <30 nmol/L on average in the year, with 17.7% and 8.3% in those sampled during the extended winter (October-March) and summer (April-November) periods, respectively. According to an alternate suggested definition of vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L), the prevalence was 40.4%. Dark-skinned ethnic subgroups had much higher (3- to 71-fold) prevalence of serum 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L than did white populations.

CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is evident throughout the European population at prevalence rates that are concerning and that require action from a public health perspective. What direction these strategies take will depend on European policy but should aim to ensure vitamin D intakes that are protective against vitamin D deficiency in the majority of the European population.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Vol/bind103
Udgave nummer4
Sider (fra-til)1033-1044
Antal sider12
ISSN0002-9165
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2016

Bibliografisk note

CURIS 2016 NEXS 061

ID: 156091301